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Full understanding of the commonly used metal materials and properties in machining

發布時間:2018-03-26

1, 45 -- high quality carbon structural steel, is the most commonly used carbon quenching and tempering steel.


Main Features: The most commonly used medium carbon quenched and tempered steel has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low hardenability, and is prone to crack during water quenching.

Small parts should be treated by tempering and tempering, and large parts should be treated by normalizing.

Application examples: mainly used in the manufacture of high strength moving parts, such as turbine impeller, compressor piston.

Shaft, gear, rack, worm, etc.

Attention should be paid to preheating before welding and stress relief annealing after welding.


2. Q235A (A3 steel) -- the most commonly used carbon structural steel.


Main features: high plasticity, toughness and welding performance, cold stamping performance, as well as certain strength, good cold bending performance.

Application examples: widely used in general requirements of parts and welding structures.

For example, the tension rod, connecting rod, pin, shaft, screw, nut, ring, support, machine base, building structure, bridge, etc.


3, 40Cr -- one of the most widely used steel, is an alloy structural steel.


Main Features:

After tempering treatment, has the good comprehensive mechanical properties, low temperature impact toughness, and low notch sensitivity, good hardenability, oil cooling can get higher fatigue strength, water-cooled complex shape parts easy to generate crack, plastic medium, cold bending tempered or quenched and tempered after cutting workability is good, but the weldability isn't good, easy to produce cracks, it should be preheated to 100 ~ 150 ℃ before welding,

Generally used in the state of quenching and tempering, but also for carbonitriding and high frequency surface quenching treatment.

Application, for example: after used in the manufacture of modified treatment weeken the speed, the load of the parts, such as gear, shaft, worm, spline shaft, thimble set, such as high frequency surface after quenching tempering and used in the manufacture of high surface hardness, wear parts, such as gear, shaft, shaft, crankshaft, spindle, sleeve, pin, connecting rod, screw nut, inlet valve, etc.,

After quenching and tempering temperature in the parts used in the manufacture of heavy, medium speed impact, such as oil pump rotor, slider, gear, shaft, sets of ring, etc., used in the manufacture of reloading after quenching and low temperature tempering, low impact, wear-resistant parts, such as worm, such as main shaft, shaft, thimble, carbonitriding place namely after manufacture large size, high low-temperature impact toughness of the transmission parts, such as axle, gear, etc.


4, HT150 -- grey cast iron application examples: gear box, machine tool bed, box, hydraulic cylinder, pump body, valve body, flywheel, cylinder head, belt wheel, bearing cover, etc


5, 35 -- common materials for all kinds of standard parts and fasteners


Main Features: Appropriate strength, good plasticity, high cold plasticity, good weldability.

Cold state can be local upsetting and wire drawing.

Low hardenability, normalized or quenched after the use of application examples: suitable for the manufacture of small cross-section parts, can bear large load parts: such as crankshaft, lever, connecting rod, hooks and rings, all kinds of standard parts, fasteners


6, 65MN - commonly used spring steel application examples: small size of various flat, round spring, cushion spring, spring spring, can also be made spring ring, valve spring, clutch spring, brake spring, cold coil coil spring, clamp spring, etc.


7, 0Cr18Ni9 -- the most commonly used stainless steel (the United States steel 304, Japan steel SUS304) characteristics and application: as a stainless heat resistant steel is most widely used, such as food equipment, general chemical equipment, the original can industrial equipment


8, CR12 -- commonly used cold work die steel (American steel D3, Japanese steel SKD1)


Characteristics and application: Cr12 steel is a kind of widely used cold work die steel. It belongs to high carbon and high chromium type leistenite steel.

The steel has good hardenability and good wear resistance.

Because the carbon content of Cr12 steel is up to 2.3%, the impact toughness is poor, brittle and easy to form uneven eutectic carbides.

Due to its good wear resistance, CR12 steel is widely used in the manufacture of cold stamping dies, punches, blanking dies, cold heading dies, cold extrusion dies and dies, drill sleeves, gauges, wire drawing dies, imprint dies, wire rubbing boards, deep drawing dies and cold pressing dies for powder metallurgy which require high wear resistance and are less affected by impact load


9, DC53 -- commonly used imported cold work die steel from Japan characteristics and application: high strength and toughness cold work die steel, Japan Datong special steel (plant) manufacturer steel number.

After high temperature tempering, it has high hardness, high toughness and good wire cutting.

Used for precision cold stamping die, drawing die, screw rolling die, cold blanking die, punch, etc.


10, DCCR12MOV -- wear-resistant chrome steel made in China.

Compared with Cr12 steel, the carbon content is lower, and the addition of Mo and V improves the uneven carbide. Mo can reduce the carbide segregation and improve the hardenability, while V can refine the grain and increase the toughness.

This steel has high hardenability, cross section under 400mm can be completely quenched, at 300~400℃ can still maintain good hardness and wear resistance, compared with Cr12 has a higher toughness, quenching volume change is small, and has high wear resistance and good comprehensive mechanical properties.

So can manufacture large section, complex shape, withstand a large impact of various molds, such as ordinary drawing die, punching die, punching die, blanking die, edge cutting die, edge rolling die, wire drawing die, cold extrusion die, cold cutting scissors, circular saws, standard tools, measuring tools, etc.


11, SKD11 -- Ductile chrome steel.

Hitachi plant production in Japan.

The casting structure of the steel was improved technically and the grain was refined.

Compared with Cr12MoV, the toughness and wear resistance are improved.

Prolong the service life of the mold.


12, D2 -- High carbon and high chromium cold work steel, made in USA.

It has high hardenability, hardenability, wear resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, good corrosion resistance after quenching and polishing, small heat treatment deformation, suitable for manufacturing all kinds of high precision, long life cold working molds, cutting tools and measuring tools, such as tensile die, cold extrusion die, cold shear knife, etc.


13, SKD11(SLD) -- non-deformation toughness high chromium steel.

Hitachi plant production in Japan.

Due to the increase of Mo and V content in the steel, the casting structure in the steel is improved, the grain is refined, and the carbide morphology is improved. Therefore, the strength and toughness (bending strength, deflection, impact toughness, etc.) of the steel is higher than that of SKD1 and D2, and the wear resistance is also increased, and it has higher tempering resistance.

The practice proves that the die life of this steel is longer than that of Cr12MoV.

Often manufacture high requirements of the mold, such as tensile die, impact grinding wheel die, etc.


14. DC53 -- high toughness and high chromium steel, produced by Daisuzhan type in Japan.

The hardness of heat treatment is higher than that of SKD11. It can reach 62-63HRC high hardness after tempering at high temperature (520-530). DC53 is higher than SKD11 in strength and wear resistance.

Twice as tough as the SKD11.

The toughness of the DC53 is very rare in cold work mold manufacturing.

Greatly improve the service life.

Residual stress is small. Residual stress is reduced by turning back at high temperature.

Because the cracks and deformation after wire cutting are inhibited.

Cutting and abrasiveness more than SKD11. Used for precision stamping die, cold forging die, deep drawing die, etc.


15, SKH-9 -- wear resistance, toughness of the general high speed steel.

Hitachi plant production in Japan.

Used for cold forging die, bar cutter, drill, reamer, punch, etc.


16, ASP-23 -- Powder Metallurgy High Speed Steel, made in Sweden.

Carbide distribution is very uniform, wear resistance, high toughness, easy processing, heat treatment size stability.

Used for long - life cutting tools such as punch, deep drawing die, drill die, milling cutter and shearing blade.


17, P20 -- General requirements of the size of plastic mold, made in the USA.

It can be operated by electric corrosion. Prehardened HB270-300 in factory condition. Quenching hardness HRC52.


18, 718 -- high requirements of the size of plastic molds, made in Sweden.

Especially for electric corrosion operation. Pre-hard HB290-330 in factory condition. Quenching hardness HRC52


NAK80 -- high mirror, high precision plastic mold, produced by Japan Da Tong type.

Factory state pre-hard HB370-400. Quenching hardness HRC52


20, S136 -- Corrosion resistant and mirror polished plastic mold, made in Sweden.

Pre-hard Hb < 215 in factory condition. Quenching hardness HRC52.


21, H13 -- General die-casting die for aluminum, zinc, magnesium and alloys.

Hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die,


22, SKD61 -- senior die-casting mold, made by Hitachi plant in Japan, through ballast heavy solution technology, the service life has been significantly improved compared with H13.

Hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die,


23. 8407 -- Advanced die-casting die, made in Sweden.

Hot stamping die, aluminum extrusion die.


24, FDAC -- add sulfur to strengthen its easy cutting, factory pre-hardness 338-42HRC, can be directly engraved processing, without quenching, tempering treatment.

Used for small batch die, simple die, various resin products, sliding parts, die parts with short delivery period.

Zipper mold, eyeglass frame mold.

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